The First World War changed the political European map. With the defeat of the Central Powers and the end of the Ottoman Empire, Europe was divided and tensions on the rise. There are many conflicts that contributed to the cause of World War 2. Here we take a look at the pre-war events that led to the outbreak.
- January 30: President Hindenburg appoints Hitler as chancellor.
- January to February: Japan conquers the Jehol province in Chinese Manchuria.
- February 24-25: League of Nations condemns Japan and calls for an end to the Japanese occupation of Manchuria. The Japanese delegation subsequently walks out.
- March 5: Nazis secure 44% of the vote in Germany’s election.
- March 23: Enabling Act is passed, which gives dictatorial powers to Hitler.
- March 27: Japan announces its intention to leave the League of Nations.
- May 31: Tangku Truce essentially eliminates China’s military presence in northern China and Inner Mongolia.
- October 14: Germany leaves the League of Nations.
- October 1: Hitler expands his army and navy, while also ordering the creation of an air force.
- December 19: Japan refuses to be limited by future naval treaties.
- December 30: Mussolini begins preparations for an Autumn invasion of Abyssinia.
- March 7: Saarland restored to Germany.
- May 2: The Soviet Union and France sign the Mutual Assistance Pact.
- June 26: The British suggest a compromise to Mussolini over Abyssinia. The Italian rejects it.
- September 15: Nuremberg Laws passed, which deprived Jews of German citizenship.
- September 18: The Soviet Union joins the League of Nations.
- October 3: Italy invades Abyssinia.
Mussolini and Hitler (image source: Wikipedia)
- January 15: Japan withdraws from the Second London Naval Conference after their request for naval parity with Britain and the USA is refused.
- February 26-29: Japanese army prevents an attempted coup to reform a civilian government.
- March 7: Germany reoccupies Rhineland.
- March 23: Italy, Austria and Hungary sign the Rome Pact.
- May 9: Italy annexes Abyssinia.
- July 18: The Spanish Civil War begins, between the Republicans and Franco’s nationalists.
- October 14: Belgium ends its military alliance with France.
- November 1: Hitler and Mussolini sign the Berlin-Rome Axis.
- November 18: Germany and Italy officially recognise Franco’s regime in Spain.
- November 25: Germany signs the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan.
- February 8: In the south of Spain, Franco’s forces take Malaga.
- April 26: The Axis powers bomb the Basque town of Guernica in Spain.
- July 7: The Marco Polo Bridge incident outside Peking triggers Japan’s ‘undeclared war’ throughout China.
- November 25: Italy joins the German-Japanese Anti-Comintern Pact.
- December 13: Japanese occupy Nanking, committing widespread atrocities on the civilian population in the process.
Pablo Picasso’s “Guernica”, 1937 (image source: Wikimedia Commons)
- March 12: German troops march into Austria, before annexing Hitler’s homeland.
- April 23: Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia demand full autonomy.
- April (unspecified): Japan’s National Mobilisation Law is passed, resulting in full military mobilisation.
- September 29: Britain, France and Italy sign the Munich Pact which agreed to transfer Sudetenland to Germany.
- October 21: Japanese capture Canton.
- October (unspecified): The Chinese Nationalist government withdraws to Chungking.